# 12.5.4. Simple 1D Fit with Bat#

This directory contains two examples of how to use BAT for a 1D fit. To run this code, you will need to install BAT. See the intructions in Installation instructions for how install BAT.

The template for creating these examples was generated by BAT via a command-line tool. To generate for one model for your own use, run, for example,

bat-project Simple1DBinnedFit Simple1DBinnedfit


This creates the directory Simple1DBinnedFit; the header and source files for a model classes Simple1DBinnedfit; the source code for a program to create and run the model, runSimple1DBinnedFit.cxx; and the Makefile for compiling everything.

To compile the code in this example, you will need to have BAT installed; and run

make


## The Data#

The data to be analyzed in this example is stored in a file in a directory above this one at: ../../example-data/fitme.root. In this ROOT file is a TTree (“BtoKstG”) with a branch named “B0_mbc”, that contains the beam-constrained masses of reconstructed B0 mesons. We will perform two fits to this data: one binned and one unbinned.

## The Model#

We model the background as being distributed according to an ARGUS function

$\begin{split}P(x) \propto \left\{\begin{array}{lcccl} x \ \sqrt{k(x)} \ E^{-\frac{1}{2} \chi^2 k(x)} & & \mathrm{if} & & x \leq x_0\\ 0& & \mathrm{if} & & x > x_0.\end{array}\right.\end{split}$

where $$k(x) \equiv 1 - x / x_0$$.

We model the signal as being distributed according to a Crystal Ball function

$\begin{split}P(x) \propto \left\{\begin{array}{lcccl} e^{-\frac{1}{2} [k(x)]^2} & & \mathrm{if} & & x \leq \alpha (k - \alpha) \leq 0\\ e^{-\frac{1}{2} \alpha^2} [1 + \frac{\alpha}{n}(k(x) - \alpha)]^{-n} & & \mathrm{if} & & \alpha (k - \alpha) > 0.\end{array}\right.\end{split}$

where $$k(x) \equiv (x - \mu) / \sigma$$. This function is normal at its mode, with a tail to one side (the direction of which depends on the sign of $$\alpha$$) that is a power distribution.

Both distributions are normalized over the range of the data.

These functions and their integral functions are coded in Functions.h

## Binned Fit#

Our model in the binned fit is that the likelihood for the data set is factorized into likelihoods for each bin:

$\log\ L(\vec{N}) = \sum_b \ \log\ \mathrm{Poisson}(N_b | \nu_b^{\mathrm{sig}} + \nu_b^{\mathrm{bkg}})$

where $$N_b$$ is the number of events observed in bin $$b$$; and $$\nu_b^{\mathrm{sig}}$$ and $$\nu_b^{\mathrm{bkg}}$$ are the number of events expected in that bin by our model. These expectation values are calculated by integrating the signal and background models over the range of the bin, normalizing to their integrals over the full fit range, and multiplying by a yield parameter.

This bit of math is coded into the function

double Simple1DBinnedfit::LogLikelihood(const std::vector<double>& P)


We need to define parameters for our model for each of the components. This is done in the constructor:

// Add signal shape parameters

// Add signal and background yields


Where for each, we have chosen an appropriate range and given pretty-print names (and units) for plotting.

We also must choose a prior for each parameter. For the moment we take all priors to be constant within their allowed ranges:

SetPriorConstantAll();


Our $$\alpha$$ parameter tells us where the signal tail starts in units of $$\sigma$$ and relative to $$\mu$$. We want to know the absolute position, in terms of a meson mass, where the tail starts. This is not a parameter of our fit, but is a function of our parameters: $$\mu + \alpha\ \sigma$$. We add it as an observable of our fit:

AddObservable("sig_tail_pos", ...);


And override a function in BCModel that lets us store its distribution:

void Simple1DBinnedFit::CalculateObservables(const std::vector<double>& P)


In runSimple1DBinnedfit.cxx we load our data into a ROOT TH1D that we pass to our model upon its creation:

Simple1DBinnedfit m("Simple1DBinnedFit", h1_data);


Before running our analysis, we set a desired precision:

m.SetPrecision(BCEngineMCMC::kMedium);


Then we run the analysis, first sampling from our distribution and then using Minuit to refine the best-fit value:

m.MarginzalizeAll();
m.FindMode();


Finall we print the results to a pdf file and to the screen and log file:

m.PrintAllMarginalized(...);
m.PrintSummary();


We then use some ROOT code (stored in DrawFit.h) to print a projection of the fit to Simple1DBinnedfit_fit.pdf.

After compiling, to run the code, execute

./runSimple1DBinnedFit


### The output#

The program produces output to the screen (and log file) that tells you the global mode of the posterior (the “best fit point”), with uncertainties on the values around that point. It will also writes out information about each of the marginalized distributions: the mean and standard deviation, the median and central one-sigma region, and quantiles.

The visual output (in Simple1DBinnedFit_plots.pdf) shows the marginalized posterior distributions for each of the parameters (and the observable) and each of the 2D combinations thereof. In each plot, the green region shows the one-sigma credibility interval; the yellow region, the two-sigma interval; and the red, the three-sigma interval. There are markers for the global mode, which you should note is often not at the local mode; and the mean and standard deviation.

Also, note that the posterior distributions for many of the parameters are not normal in their entire range; thought they tend to be normal around their mode. In particular, the posterior for the $$n$$ parameter of the Crystal Ball function peaks at low values but has a very large tail to large values.

One of the great advantages of inspecting the posterior probability via BAT is that you can see the complicated correlations among your parameters in a way that you can not achieve with a fitter like Minuit.

In our model, we can see a complicated correlation between the $$n$$ and the signal and background yields. The yields depend greatly on $$n$$ when it is small; and then become independent of $$n$$, when it is large. The marginalization of the signal yield, which integrates out the $$n$$ degree of freedom (and all others) appears to be dominated by our model at large $$n$$. Since we arbitarily choose the upper limit of $$n$$, this would seem to be a deficiency of our model.

Please try extending the range of $$n$$ and seeing what happens to the posteriors. You’ll see that the posterior for $$n$$ levels out: this is to be expected—after all, what is the difference in shape between $$n = 100$$ and $$n = 1000$$?

Let us try extending our example by supposing that we have performed a test fit to simulated data and have expectations for what our shape parameters should be. This is quite common in analyses. Typically one fixes the parameters to these values and then calculates a systematic uncertainty by observing the effect of moving them plus and minus one sigma away from their expectations.

In BAT we will robustly incorporate this systematic uncertainty into our fit by using that information from fits to simulated data as priors for our parameters.

Uncomment the code block in runSimple1DBinnedfit.cxx that sets priors for the parameters:

m.GetParameter("bg_x0").SetPrior(new BCGaussianPrior(5.289, 0.3e-3));
m.GetParameter("bg_chi").SetPrior(new BCGaussianPrior(9.8, 0.3));
m.GetParameter("sig_mode").SetPrior(new BCGaussianPrior(5.279, 1e-3));
m.GetParameter("sig_sigma").SetPrior(new BCGaussianPrior(3.5e-3, 0.1e-3));
m.GetParameter("sig_alpha").SetPrior(new BCGaussianPrior(-1.3, 0.15));
m.GetParameter("sig_n").SetPrior(new BCGaussianPrior(2.5, 0.5));
m.GetParameter("sig_n").SetUpperLimit(10);


Note that in the last line we shrink the allowed range for $$n$$ since we now expect it to be small.

In order to compile this code, we must also include BCGaussianPrior. Uncomment the include statement at the top of the file:

#include <BAT/BCGaussianPrior.h>


Since we are now defining priors, we also want to look at that the change from the prior to the posterior. Uncomment the line that prints this knowledge-update information:

m.PrintKnowledgeUpdatePlots(...);


Looking at the output plots again, you should see that they are now much better behaving: they are nearly normal for all parameters with no strange 2D correlations.

Looking at the file produced by the last uncommented line, Simple1DBinnedfit_update.pdf, you can see the change from the prior distribution to the posterior distribution. You’ll notice that some of our priors—based on fits to simulated data—do not match to our posteriors. Yet still, our model is not so strongly influenced by the prior that it cannot find the correct value. But by placing a prior on $$n$$, we could eliminate the bad behavior at large $$n$$.

Note also that BAT has calculated what the prior on $$\mu = \alpha\ \sigma$$ is even though it is not a parameter, but instead an observable. BAT can also provide you inside into non-parameter observables. This is especially useful when you are fitting for observables like asymmetries. BAT can tell you if you have a non-flat prior on what may be the main point of your analysis. This can help you to plan better.

## Unbinned Fit#

The unbinned fit uses the same model as the binned fit, but, being unbinned, does not need the yield parameters Y_S and Y_B. Instead it needs a signal fraction parameter:

AddParameter("f", ...);


The log-likelihood is also different and is a sum of logs of the fit function for each data point with the signal function weighted by $$f$$ and and the background function weighted by $$(1-f)$$. Otherwise the two fits are identical. Just as you did in the binned example, take a look at the correlations and uncomment the code to add priors.